Surfing the internet anonymously is essential and simple. Section 4 instructs computer laymen how to set up JAP to protect their internet connections in less than 7 minutes.
Copyright © 2007-08 Willi Flenda
This guide is compiled to the best of my knowledge and distributed in the hope you find it useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
To protect your anonymity is essential, both for freedom and democracy in general, as for you individually: Information about you can be used to your detriment—even if you haven’t done anything illegal.
Don’t be deceived by the fallacy that you have “nothing to hide.” This guide is not about concealing criminal activity; it is about you determining who shall know what about you. Surfing the internet abundantly reveals personal information. Systematic analysis can provide profiles that might know more about you than you yourself do. If you consent by abandoning anonymity, you expose yourself to risk. At best you are charged individually higher prices when shopping online. At worst, upon theft of your divulged identity, you get innocently involved in crimes.
Moreover, by surfing anonymously, you are helping people who work for amnesty international, face oppressive regimes, or are otherwise in dire need of anonymity for causes that you (hopefully) support.
If in real life you envelope your letters, if you don’t confide your salary, your medical record or your erotic preferences to any stranger, if you would not let any unknown into your home, already if you wear a pair of trousers—you are “hiding” something from people that is none of their business. In virtual life you need anonymity for the same reason. Within 7 minutes you will be able to guard yours.
Nothing. Unless you count the 7 minutes to set it up. Only free software is employed, which is also available free of charge.
Broadly speaking, anonymity “costs” connection speed. Since it is achieved by mixing the traffic of thousands of users in an irreversible way (see section 3 for details), the speed of your connection must decrease by design. Popular servers, however, provide connectivity fair enough for surfing without encumbrance. Also, this guide covers the installation of an on/off button, so you can maximise speed at the cost of anonymity at any time.1
The two leading programmes for internet anonymity are JAP und TOR. Both channel your traffic trough one or several servers, encrypting where possible. Your identity can only be revealed—other than by yourself—if all used servers are compromised.
TOR and JAP differ somewhat in design, giving rise to specific pros and cons. Both projects provide detailed technical descriptions on their homepages [TOR, JAP], as does wikipedia [TOR, JAP]. This guide sets up JAP.2
Using only one server basically amounts to setting it as your proxy. It fetches sought sites in your place and transmits them encrypted to you. For instance, choosing the server “Dresden-Dresden” (for details see section 5) makes every website you surf to believe you are the Technical University of Dresden (Germany). Only with access to that server can your connections be seen (connection data are never stored by JAP).
When you use a mix cascade (eg. the CCC cascade) your identity (IP address) can only be revealed if all three servers of the cascade are controlled. Cascades thus are much safer, especially when the servers are in different countries, with at least one not subject to data retention.
All JAP servers are certified.
To convince you how little needs to be done, here is the complete list of tasks: You will
Although this does not include clicks for opening or closing programmes or the like, 7 minutes clearly are a generous timeframe.
Installation comprises three steps:
If you are already using Firefox you can waive this subsection. Otherwise you should invest this minute and switch to Firefox. JAP does work with other browsers, but Firefox is very safe, and the extension Torbutton (explained in section 4.3) only works with Firefox. Most importantly, Firefox is free software.
To install, surf to www.mozilla.com. There you will find a button to download the setup file. Download and execute it, then follow the instructions of the installation wizard. This should work easily and smoothly. If you still encounter problems, consult http://www.mozilla.org/support/firefox/.
|TIP: If you are in the habit of using a USB stick, install Firefox Portable instead. It is available at http://portableapps.com/apps/internet/firefox_portable. Just move the folder of the browser onto your USB stick. You can then start “your” Firefox Portable from there on any Windows computer where you connect your stick. This fosters anonymity, since no traces are left on the host computer (additionally, your settings, extensions, and bookmarks are always with you).|
Surf to http://anon.inf.tu-dresden.de/. Click on Download in the menu on the left hand side. At the bottom of the page there is a link to JAP.jar. Download it by right-clicking and choosing Save target as.... You can put it in any directory (you have access to), whereever it should remain.
|REMARK: It is recommended, but not necessary, to check the signature of JAP.jar to ensure it is authentic. This, however, is burdensome. If you want to verify the file, instructions are at http://anon.inf.tu-dresden.de/pgp/sigtest_en.html.3|
IMPORTANT: Set up JAP to start up automatically when the system does. To do so with Windows4 go (with the explorer or via “my computer”) to the directory where you saved JAP.jar. Right-click on it and select Create shortcut. In the current folder a new file named Shortcut to JAP.jar appears. Right-click on it and choose Cut. Now click on the Start button of your task bar, click on (All) Programms and then double-click on Autostart. A new window appears. Therein, right-click and select Paste. Shortcut to JAP.jar should appear.5 The automatic start-up is set up, you can close the Autostart window.
Now execute JAP by double-clicking on JAP.jar.
ATTENTION: If double-clicking on JAP.jar fails to start up JAP, see Appendix A.1 for help and read on when you see JAP’s configuration wizard.
|TIP: A .jar file is portable by construction. Just move it onto your USB stick and you can start it at any computer with Java by double-clicking. This way you always have an anonymous portable Firefox on you.|
The configuration wizard comes up. It should be self-explanatory; however, since this guide encompasses setting up the extension Torbutton, it is neither meaningful nor necessary to complete the wizards instructions. Simply choose your language in the first dialogue (and click Next), click Next in the second dialogue, choose the green options in the next two dialoges (and hit Next), hit one more time Next, then choose the simplified view and finish by clicking two more times Next and finally Finish.
JAP now connects to its network. If it suggests a paid cascade, decline with No and select one free of charge, or a single mix (more about choosing mixes in section 5). Ensure that Anonymity is turned On.
Immediately proceed to install Torbutton as detailed in the following section: Your anonymity is not protected yet!
Surf to https://addons.mozilla.org/de/firefox/addon/2275 and install the Firefox extension Torbutton. It has been developed for TOR, but with minimal adaption it is equally suited for JAP.
After restarting Firefox upon installation, the text Tor Disabled appears in red at the right corner of your status bar. Open the preferences menu by right-clicking on it and choosing Preferences.... At Proxy Settings check the option Use custom proxy settings and type “localhost” into all text fields on the left hand side, and the number “4001” into all textboxes on the right hand side. (You can choose to have an icon instead of the text by changing the Display Settings.) Confirm with OK.
With a simple click on this text/ the icon of Torbutton you toggle your anonymity status between Disabled and Enabled. Whenever it is Disabled you are surfing just as until now, without anonymity. When it is Enabled you are redirected via JAP, thus anonymous. If JAP is not running while Torbutton is Enabled, you get an error message and cannot surf. You need to start JAP (or abandon anonymity). If JAP is running, you can switch at any instant your current status by a simple click on the button (if necessary, reload the page).
Set the Torbutton to Enabled. Surf to any website of your choice. Congratulations! You have reached it anonymously.
With JAP you can choose where to connect to. To start with, consider the CCC cascade and Dresden-Dresden.
The CCC cascade is a mix cascade with three servers. As explained in section 3 this increases security significantly. Connection speed, however, may deteriorate if not enough traffic is taking place. Recently bandwidth has been sufficient for surfing during rush hours; at tranquil times it has not. In this case, switch to Dresden-Dresden. Don’t forget to check back later whether the CCC cascade is already fast enough again.
Dresden-Dresden is a single server. The connectivity reached here is sufficient for comfortable surfing at any time. Only if you need huge files fast you could consider foregoing anonymity for that connection. As explained in section 4.3 this only takes one click. Inspect the Torbutton regularly to verify you are surfing anonymously.
After having convinced yourself of the necessity and convenience of surfing anonymously, if you wish for higher connection speed, you might give a thought to using a paid cascade occasionally. If you do, prefer one with servers in different countries. This way your data are also protected from single governments. Bear in mind that data retention vaporizes your anonymity unless at least one server does not retain connection records (because it lies in a country that does not force this).
No. You have made a first large step towards informational self-determination. Yet, don’t fall prey to the illusion of absolute security. First, an anonymous connection notwithstanding, some applications can give away your identity. Second (and more improbable), JAP itself (especially when using only a single server) could be compromised. The key point, however, is: With JAP you are always much safer than without.
Encrypt and sign your e-mails.
An internet search of “GnuPG” promptly delivers all necessary information and free software that you need.
This guide was written to enable people without computer science background to protect themselves. It cannot contain in-depth technical details or an encompassing list of the reasons for privacy (to not risk making it too long to be read). Feel free to provide that yourself and let me know about it.
For any comments, suggestiones, discussions, or contributions, send me an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. Don’t be shy about writing me! Keep it clear and consice and in plain text, though (and don’t expect an immediate answer; but I will reply, unless I get overwhelmed).
|TIP: You can send anonymous emails from http://anonymouse.org/.|
This text is free. Use it as you wish in accordance with the license (basically, it must stay free).
If you want a German version of this text, mail me. If you’ve prepared another translation, please send it.
Most importantly, send this to everybody who is not surfing anonymously yet. Give them a chance to protect themselves, as you can.
Incorporated data retention, inserted link, converted to UTF-8, produced HTML version.
Added anonymous mails and .jar help, improved structure.
Improved ToC and cover sheet.
Minor linguistic changes.
Version en-1.00 completed.
Proceed as follows.
Version 1.2, November 2002
Copyright © 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document “free” in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.
A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.
A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.
The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not “Transparent” is called “Opaque”.
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.
The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, “Endorsements”, or “History”.) To “Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this definition.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties–for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements”.
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:
Copyright © YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with … Texts.” line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.